**Python operators** can be used to perform operations on variables and values. There is a different type of operations which can be performed.

Contents

## Python Operators

- Python Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
- Identity operators
- Membership operators
- Bitwise operators

### Python Arithmetic Operators

**Arithmetic operators** are used with numeric values to perform common mathematical operators.

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Addition | x + y |

– | Subtraction | x – y |

* | Multiplication | x * y |

/ | Division | x / y |

% | Modulus | x%y |

** | Exponentiation | x ** y |

// | Floor Division | x // y |

**Example**

a = 9 b = 4 # Addition of numbers add = a + b # Subtraction of numbers sub = a - b # Multiplication of number mul = a * b # Division(float) of number div1 = a / b # Division(floor) of number div2 = a // b # Modulo of both number mod = a % b # print results print(add) print(sub) print(mul) print(div1) print(div2) print(mod)

**Output**

13

5

36

2.25

2

1

### Python Assignment Operators

**Assignment operators** help us to assign values to variables.

Operator | Example |
---|---|

= | x = 5 |

+ = | x += 5 |

– = | x -= 5 |

* = | x *= 5 |

/ = | x /= 5 |

% = | x %= 5 |

// = | x //= 5 |

** = | x **= 5 |

& = | x &= 5 |

| = | x | = 5 |

^ = | x ^ = 5 |

>>= | x >> =5 |

<<= | x <<= 5 |

**Example**

a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 c = a + b print "Value of c is ", c c += a print "Value of c is ", c c *= a print "Value of c is ", c c /= a print "Value of c is ", c c = 2 c %= a print "Value of c is ", c c **= a print "Value of c is ", c c //= a print "Value of c is ", c

**Output**

Value of c is 31

Value of c is 52

Value of c is 1092

Value of c is 52

Value of c is 2

Value of c is 2097152

Value of c is 99864

### Python Comparison Operators

**Comparison Operators** are used for comparing two values.

Operator | Name | Example |
---|---|---|

= = | equal | x = = y |

! = | Not equal | x!= y |

> | Greater than | x > y |

< | Less than | x < y |

>= | Greater than or equal to | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to | x <= y |

**Example**

a = 21 b = 10 c = 0 if ( a == b ): print "Line 1 - a is equal to b" else: print "Line 1 - a is not equal to b" if ( a != b ): print "Line 2 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 2 - a is equal to b" if ( a <> b ): print "Line 3 - a is not equal to b" else: print "Line 3 - a is equal to b" if ( a < b ): print "Line 4 - a is less than b" else: print "Line 4 - a is not less than b" if ( a > b ): print "Line 5 - a is greater than b" else: print "Line 5 - a is not greater than b" a = 5; b = 20; if ( a <= b ): print "Line 6 - a is either less than or equal to b" else: print "Line 6 - a is neither less than nor equal to b" if ( b >= a ): print "Line 7 - b is either greater than or equal to b" else: print "Line 7 - b is neither greater than nor equal to b"

**Output**

a is not equal to b

a is not equal to b

a is not equal to b

a is not less than b

a is greater than b

a is either less than or equal to b

b is either greater than or equal to b

### Python Logical Operators

**Logical operators** used for comparing conditional statements.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

And | Returns True if both statements are true | x< 6 and x < 15 |

or | Returns True if one of the statements is true | x < 8 or x < 3 |

not | Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true | not(x<4 and x < 11) |

**Example**

a = True b = False # Print a and b is False print(a and b) # Print a or b is True print(a or b) # Print not a is False print(not a)

**Output**

False

True

False

### Python Identity Operators

**Identity operators** used to compare the objects, not if they are equal, even if they are having the same object, with the same memory location.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

is | Returns true if both variables are the same object | x is y |

is not | Returns true if both variables are not the same object | x is not y |

**Example**

#!/usr/bin/python a = 20 b = 20 if ( a is b ): print "a and b have the same identity" else: print "a and b do not have the same identity" if ( id(a) == id(b) ): print "a and b have the same identity" else: print "a and b do not have the same identity" b = 30 if ( a is b ): print "a and b have the same identity" else: print "a and b do not have same identity" if ( a is not b ): print "a and b do not have same identity" else: print "a and b have same identity"

**Output**

a and b have the same identity

a and b have the same identity

a and b do not have the same identity

a and b do not have the same identity

### Python Membership Operators

**Membership operators** are used to testing that if a sequence is present in an object.

Operator | Description | Example |
---|---|---|

in | Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object | x in y |

not in | Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object | x not in y |

**Example**

#!/usr/bin/python a = 10 b = 20 list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ]; if ( a in list ): print "a is available in the given list" else: print "a is not available in the given list" if ( b not in list ): print "b is not available in the given list" else: print "b is available in the given list" a = 2 if ( a in list ): print "a is available in the given list" else: print "a is not available in the given list"

**Output**

a is not available in the given list

b is not available in the given list

a is available in the given list

### Python Bit-wise Operators

**Bitwise operators** used for comparing binary numbers.

Operator | Name | Description |
---|---|---|

& | AND | Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 |

| | OR | Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1 |

^ | XOR | Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1 |

~ | NOT | Inverts all the bits |

<< | Zero left shift | left by pushing zeros in from the right let the leftmost bits fall off |

>> | Signed right shift | Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off |

**Example**

a = 10 b = 4 # Print bitwise AND operation print(a & b) # Print bitwise OR operation print(a | b) # Print bitwise NOT operation print(~a) # print bitwise XOR operation print(a ^ b) # print bitwise right shift operation print(a >> 2) # print bitwise left shift operation print(a << 2)

**Output**

0

14

-11

14

2

40