What is Hacking? Types of Hackers

What is Hacking?

Hacking is the act of finding and exploiting security flaws in a computer device or network to obtain access to personal or business records. Using a password-cracking algorithm to obtain access to a computer device is an example of computer hacking.
Computers have become a must for operating a profitable enterprise. It is not enough to have separate operating systems; they must be networked to communicate with outside companies. This makes them vulnerable to hacks and the outside world. System hacking is described as the use of computers to perform malicious activities such as fraud, breach of privacy, theft of corporate/personal data, and so on. Per year, cybercrime costs many businesses millions of dollars. Businesses must safeguard themselves against such assaults.
Let’s take a look at the basics of hacking and some of the more widely used hacking terminologies before we get started.

Who is a Hacker?

A hacker is someone who seeks out and exploits flaws in computer systems and/or networks to obtain access to them. Hackers have usually experienced computer programmers with a working understanding of computer security.

Types of Hackers

The hackers are listed by their purpose. The list below classifies hacker types according to their purpose:

Symbol Description
white Hat Hacker Ethical Hacker (White Hat): A security hacker who achieves access to databases to identify and repair vulnerabilities. Penetration testing and vulnerability tests can also be performed by them.
Black Hat Hacker A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer networks for personal gain is known as a cracker (black hat). Typically, the aim is to steal business records, breach privacy rights, and move money from bank accounts, along with other things.
Grey Hat Hacker Grey hat: A hacker between black and ethical hat hackers. He or she enters operating systems without authorization to find flaws and expose them to the system owner.
Script Kiddies Script kiddies are non-skilled individuals who obtain access to computer systems through the use of pre-made tools.
Hacktivist Hacktivist: A hacker who uses hacking to deliver messages about social, religious, and political issues, among other things. This is normally accomplished by hijacking websites and posting the message there.
Phreaking Phreaker: a hacker that detects and utilizes phone and network vulnerabilities.

Introduction of Cybercrime

Cybercrime is the use of computers and networks to engage in illicit acts such as the dissemination of computer malware, cyber abuse, and fraudulent electronic money transactions, among other things. The majority of cybercrime hacks are carried out over the internet, but some are carried out via SMS and online chatting apps on mobile phones.

Types of Cybercrime

The following is a list of popular cybercrime types:
Computer Fraud: Using computer systems to deceive others for personal gain.
Violation of privacy: posting personal information such as email addresses, phone numbers, account numbers, and other data on social media, hacking a website, and so on.
Identity Theft: Taking someone’s info and impersonating them.
Transmitting copyright-protected files/information: This entails distributing copyright-protected files such as eBooks and software programs, among other things.
Electronic money transfer: This entails having unauthorized access to bank computer networks and transferring funds illegally.
Electronic money laundering: This is where money is laundered via a computer.
ATM Fraud: This entails intercepting ATM card information such as account numbers and PINs. These records are then used to steal money from the accounts that have been hacked.
Denial of Service Attacks: These include the use of several computers in different places to target servers to bring them offline.
Spam: Illegal email transmission. Advertisements are also used in these emails.

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking is the process of finding flaws in computer systems and/or networks and devising countermeasures to defend those flaws. The below guidelines must be followed by ethical hackers.

• Before hacking, get written authorization from the owner of the operating machine and/or computer network.
• Safeguard the identity of the hacked organization.
• Inform the company of all detected computer system flaws transparently.
• Notify hardware and software suppliers about the discovered flaws.

Why Ethical Hacking?

• Data is one of an organization’s most precious properties. Keeping information safe can protect an organization’s reputation while still saving money.
• For companies that deal with finance, such as PayPal, fake hacking can result in a loss of revenue. Ethical hacking allows them to stay one step ahead of cybercriminals, which would otherwise cause them to lose money.

The legality of Ethical Hacking

Ethical hacking is legal if the hacker follows the guidelines outlined in the section above on ethical hacking classification. The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) offers a credential program that assesses a person’s knowledge and abilities. Certificates are given to those who complete the test. For a certain period, the licenses are expected to be extended.


• Hacking is the act of finding and modifying flaws in computer systems and/or networks.
• Cybercrime is the use of computers and information technology systems to commit a crime.
• Ethical hacking is concerned with enhancing the reliability of information systems and/or networks.
• Ethical hacking is a legitimate activity.